Water pollution is the contamination of water by the pollutants that enter water system from industries or other systems. Water pollution causes serious health diseases and some times leads to death. Here are some effects of polluted water on humans.
Water borne diseases
Drinking polluted water causes water borne diseases such as:
- Typhoid, Amoebiasis, Giardiasis, Ascariasis, Hook worm
- Redness of eyes, rashes and skin diseases
- Respiratory infections, Hepatitis
Contamination of water with chemicals
The source of chemical contamination in water is through industries. After completion of the processes in industries, the left over chemicals, oils and wastes are discharged into the lakes and rivers without any proper treatment. The chemicals includes arsenic, lead and fluoride in toxic amounts causes serious effects on human.
- Fluoride causes discoloration of teeth and skeletal deformities.
- Arsenic affects lungs, kidney, bladder and increases the risk of cancer.
- Lead shows affects on children and pregnant woman. It impairs central nervous system and decreases the learning ability in children.
Contamination of water with microbes
Contamination of water with microbes enters the system through sewage and animal wastes. Contaminants of microbes include cryptosporidium and coliform bacteria.
- Cryptosporidium in drinking water causes gastro intestinal diseases, nausea and vomiting.
- Coliform bacteria shows mild effects such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
Contamination of water with changes in temperature
Changes in optimum temperature causes thermal pollution of water. When water is used as a coolant in industries and later released into the environment, it leads to reduction in the oxygen content. Drinking water with low dissolved oxygen leads to serious effects in human. Thermal pollution of water causes malnutrition
Contamination of water with radio nuclides
Some minerals are radio active and emit alpha and beta radiation which effects human on drinking polluted water.
- It increases the risk of cancer.
- Radon gas effects lungs and increases the risk of lung cancer.
Contamination of water with pesticides
Contamination of water with pesticides, fertilizers, disinfectants or organic metals causes serious health hazards. Pesticides enters the system through agricultural farming.
- Cadmium is a metal found in sludge derived fertilizer. It causes liver, kidney damage and diarrhea.
- Pesticides such as organo phosphates causes throat irritation and abdominal problems. It also effects endocrine and reproductive system.
- These damages DNA and impairs central nervous system. It causes parkinsonism and alzheimer in humans.
Not only polluted water affects human, it also affects animals and disrupts food chain.