Laboratory equipment are instruments used to perform medical tests of blood and urine. It helps to diagnose the condition of the patient. Medical laboratory equipments include petri dishes for growth of cultures, beakers, glass tubes, glass slides, cover slips, syringes and gloves.
Other laboratory equipments include:
- Hematology Analyzer
- Ultra centrifuge
- Radio Immuno Assay (RIA)
Hematology analyzer: Hematology analyzers are used to analyze components present in blood samples. Hematology analyzer includes coagulation analyzer, flow cytometers and slide stainer.
- Coagulation analyzer is used to determine how much time is taken to clot blood.
- Flow cytometers are used to analyze the blood count and detection of antibodies.
- Slide stainer is used to stain the blood on slides.
These are used to detect diseases like anemia, diabetes and plasma drug levels.
Ultra centrifuge: Ultra centrifuge is used in medical laboratory to separate the constituents in blood or urine based on molecular density. It is used to sediment and separate the cells or proteins present in the sample by spinning at a rate of rotations per minute. It is used to determine the percentage of RBC in blood by centrifuging and then a packed RBC is removed and observed under microscope.
Electrophoresis: It is one of the important technique used for the separation of bio molecules. This separation is based on the movement of particles due to electrical current. It can be used to detect cancers by analyzing urine and serum samples. It is also used to separate DNA, RNA and proteins based on the charge on them.
Colorimetry: It is an instrument used for analyzing and detecting the amount of constituents present in blood. It includes estimation of glucose, creatine and hemoglobin in blood. It can be done by placing a sample in a sample holder. Then a beam of visible light is passed and absorbance is measured. From this concentration or percentage of constituents in blood samples can be determined.
RIA: Radio immuno assay is a sensitive technique as it can detect the presence of substance in picograms levels. It uses antibodies to detect the presence of antigen like proteins, hormones and tumors. It is also detects the presence of hepatitis virus and HIV viruses.
ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay): It is also used to detect the presence of hepatitis virus and HIV. It is used to determine the presence of antigens in sample. For this, sample should be in liquid form.